The new guidelines have led to a lot of confusion in the Indian pharma industryCreative CommonsThe central government’s draft guidelines for the online pharmacy industry have raised serious concerns for players working in the expanding space. The draft also includes a possible overlapping role of state governments.The gazette notification released by the centre on 28th August requires all the e-pharmacies to register with the apex drug regulator and central licensing authority, which is the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation.The Economic Times reported that one the clauses of the rules also empower the state governments to cancel the registration of the players which has led to the fear of overregulation in a sector that has emerged as a growing sector over the last three years.Atul Pandey, a partner at law firm Khaitan & Co. speaking to the Economic Times said that “While the draft rules clearly mention a central licensing authority, as far as e-pharmacy marketplaces are concerned, there is also Rule 67T (3), which talks about the power of the state governments to cancel the registrations. The confusion lies around the question of where this power is coming from.”Moreover, it is also unclear the whether the offline players including selling medicines on online platforms will also have to register with the central licensing authority. Pandey also added that “There is also a requirement under existing rules for each and every drug, retailers and wholesalers to obtain a license from the state authorities. It is not clear if the online portals will have to register with the state authorities in relation with the drugs sold through the portal.”India’s pharma sector has been growing at a very healthy rate in the recent past. According to the India Brand Equity Foundation, India’s pharmaceutical sector is valued at $33 billion in 2017. Moreover, it is likely to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 22.4% over 2015–20 to reach $55 billion.Growing with this rate, the country is expected to be in the top three pharmaceutical markets by incremental growth and it is also expected to become the sixth largest market globally in absolute size by the year 2020. There are numerous opportunities in the domestic e-pharmacy market but at the current levels, it has only captured 1% of the overall pharmaceutical market. Market research shows that it is expected to reach $3 billion by 2024.
Nobel laureate professor Muhammad Yunus. File photoBangladeshi Nobel peace laureate Muhammad Yunus on Tuesday called on countries to revolutionise the way they address the frequently interconnected issues of hunger and conflict, urging initiatives to foster social cohesion and rural entrepreneurship especially among the young.”If you continue the same way as you have done before, you’ll always end up with the same result…particularly on the issues of food security, agriculture, and the environment,” Yunus said.He was addressing an event at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation’s headquarters here to assess progress made by the FAO-Nobel Peace Laureates Alliance for Food Security and Peace.Mustering 12 Nobel prize-winners, the advocacy group was set up in 2016 and aims to break the cycle of conflict and hunger.”Unless we think differently, unless we work differently, (these issues) are not going to be resolved,” said Yunus, who won the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of micro-credit and micro-finance.Hunger and conflict are intrinsically linked, the FAO said.According to FAO figures, over 60 per cent of people suffering from hunger live in areas of conflict. At the same time, there are a growing number of conflicts over natural resources to produce food, the UN agency noted.The Rome meeting reviewed an experimental peace-building project in the Central African Republic involving Christians and Muslims in agricultural production, training and social business development, as well as community dialogue to encourage social cohesion.The pilot project demonstrates that agricultural entrepreneurship can help transform communities which in turn encourage people to stay in their community rather than being forced to seek better opportunities elsewhere, Yunus said.”Farmers are excellent entrepreneurs,” Yunus underlined.The project is taking place on land owned by the Catholic Church outside the CAR capital Bangui where around 3,000 people displaced by conflict live, FAO said.The CAR project is designed by FAO, funded by the Italian government and is being implemented by its overseas aid department.The initiative draws on Yunus’ expertise in encouraging agricultural entrepreneurship, particularly among young people, and on the expertise of Yemeni human rights activist and 2011 Nobel Peace Prize recipient Tawakkol Karman in encouraging inter-religious dialogue for peace.Other Nobel peace prize winners who are part of the Alliance include Iraqi Yazidi human rights activist Nadia Mura who was awarded the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize for her campaign against the use of rape as a weapon of war, and former President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, who won the prize in 2016 for his efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end.
“Most conventional atomic clocks need a more conventional, non-atomic clock, like a quartz crystal, to keep them ticking,” William Happer tells PhysOrg.com. “We’ve developed a system that would be self-ticking, using a specific laser.” Redefining the limits of measurement accuracy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “It’s really a souped-up mode-locked laser,” Happer says. “While our laser has much in common with a mode-locked laser, there are some differences. The atoms in the vapor cell notice if the frequency of the mode-locked laser drifts and they automatically correct the frequency with no need for any external feedback loops.”Happer continues: “An important benefit of push-pull pumping with alternating circular polarization is that none of the atoms are wasted.” “In most atomic clocks,” Jau adds, “many of the atoms are wasted. Only a very few are in the clock state. With this push-pull pumping, all of the atoms are put into a clock state.”Along the way, the two discovered something interesting. “The self-modulation occurs over a limited range of laser injection current. We weren’t surprised that too little current didn’t work. What surprised us was that too much current caused the laser to stop modulating,” Happer says. Jau continues: “This new oscillator, where the polarized atoms, the modulated photons, and the laser gain centers are all coupled together has very rich and interesting physics. ”Happer does point out that these oscillators could not replace the extremely precise, but large atomic clocks that occupy whole rooms. “It’s really to improve the workings of small, portable atomic clocks,” he emphasizes. “It eliminates the need for quartz crystals or photodetectors. Hopefully, with fewer parts, it will be less expensive to manufacture, and more stable.”Jau agrees: “This is a primitive idea, how to make an atomic clock by using pure optical methods without a quartz crystal. But it works better with reduced components and power consumption.”Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Self-ticking oscillator could be next for portable atomic clocks (2007, December 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-12-self-ticking-oscillator-portable-atomic-clocks.html Happer is a scientist at Princeton University. He, along with his young colleague Yuan-Yu Jau, invented a push-pull laser-atomic oscillator that can be useful in a variety of applications, including questions of fundamental physics, use in portable atomic clocks and coherent optical combs. “We didn’t start out thinking about applications, really,” Happer says. “We’re physicists. We just wanted to see if we could make this type of oscillator work.” The results of Happer and Jau’s work can be found in Physical Review Letters: “Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator.”Jau explains that even though they didn’t set out to build a better portable atomic clock, he thinks that they have succeeded. “We believe this is the first demonstration of making an oscillator that produces an atomic-clock signal in both electrical and optical forms by purely optical means,” he says. “This is simple. There are fewer components and lower power consumption.”“The new clock needs neither a quartz crystal with its electronics nor a photodetector,” Happer adds.Jau and Happer explain that in conventional atomic clocks, a quartz crystal is used “as a flywheel to keep the clock ticking strongly, with the atoms as a weak controlling element.” They point out that if the quartz crystal fails, the clock will cease working. “These are the types of clocks used in GPS satellites and in cell-phone towers,” Happer says.Jau points out that better precision is becoming increasingly necessary: “Mini atomic clocks can be helpful. There are many systems now working faster and faster, and transmitting large quantities of data, especially in high-speed communications. A laser atomic clock like this would be less complicated than the conventional kind, with comparable precision.”The push-pull laser-atomic oscillator built by the two consists of a semiconductor laser with alkali-metal vapor (in this case Potassium) in the external cavity. A time independent current is used to pump the semiconductor laser. “The laser will automatically modulate its light and its electrical impedance at the clock frequency of the atoms,” Happer says. This in turn eliminates the need for an external modulator, like the quartz crystal, or for a photodetector. Explore further